GC: n

S: WHO – https://goo.gl/uvBje9 (last access: 21 November 2016); MEDLP – https://goo.gl/05BEJv (last access: 21 November 2016).

N: 1. It originated aproximately in 1887, from German dyslexie (1883). The latter deriving from Greek dys-, ‘bad, abnormal, difficult’ + lexis, ‘word’ + abstract noun ending –ia. As a noun, ‘dyslexic’ is first recorded in 1961; as an adjective, ‘dyslectic’ is first recorded in 1964.
2. Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
3. The majority of kids with learning issues have features of dyslexia and this is probably why dyslexia is confused with dyscalculia (Spanish equivalent: discalculia; French equivalent: dyscalculie), sometimes called math dyslexia, causing problems when it comes to reading, writing and understanding numbers. It is also confused with dysgraphia (Spanish equivalent: disgrafía; French equivalent: dysgraphie). In this case, dysgraphic people struggle when putting words on paper or spelling when writing.
4. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention the documentary The Big Picture: Rethinking Dyslexia (2012), directed by James Redford, showing what it is like to live with dyslexia. Another film about dyslexia is the Indian Like Stars on Earth (original title: Taare Zameen Par, 2007) directed by Aamir Khan. From a medical point of view, we can make reference to the book Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention (2011) by Nancy Mather and Barbara J. Wendling.

S: 1. OED – https://goo.gl/2xvS7P (last access: 21 November 2016). 2. IDA – https://goo.gl/mDmDzF (last access: 21 November 2016). 3. UND – https://goo.gl/nmQQQW (last access: 21 November 2016). 4. UND – https://goo.gl/2QMkuQ (last access: 22 November 2016); https://goo.gl/64txmZ (last access: 22 November 2016); GB – https://goo.gl/ZcEvMT (last access: 21 November 2016).


CR: syndrome