Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus

GC: n

S: WHO – (last access: 4 September 2016); (last access: 4 September 2016).

N: 1. CCHF was first described in the Crimea in 1944, among soldiers and agricultural workers, and in 1969 it was recognised that the virus causing the disease was identical to a virus isolated from a child in the Congo in 1956.
2. CCHFV is a triple segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome virus belonging to the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. The virions are spherical, measure approximately 85 to 105 nm in diameter, and have a bilayered lipid envelope that is approximately 5 to 7 nm thick.
3. Over the last several years, we have experienced an increase of large outbreaks of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in European countries and neighboring areas. This disease poses a great threat to public health owing to its high mortality rate, modes of transmission and geographical distribution. Clinical symptoms of infection commonly include hemorrhage, myalgia and fever. The complexity of the technical and facility requirements, in combination with the sporadic outbreaks and consequent lack of clinical specimens has resulted in very limited research of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. To date, there is no vaccine available and a selective antiviral drug for the treatment of the disease is not expected in the near future. Here, we review the most recent findings on the Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus molecular biology and pathogenesis, including aspects of virus–host cell interactions.
4. CCHF virus is widespread and evidence for the virus has been found among ticks in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe and South Western Europe.
In Europe cases of human infections have been reported from Albania, Armenia, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Russia, Serbia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. In June 2008, a first case was diagnosed in Greece.

S: 1. (last access: 4 September 2016). 2. (last access: 4 September 2016). 3. (last access: 4 September 2016). 4. (last access: 4 September 2016).

GV: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

S: (last access: 4 September 2016)

SYN: 1. CCHF virus. 2. CCHFV, CCHF, Central Asian haemorrhagic fever, Congo fever. Formerly known as Crimean haemorrhagic fever Congo virus, Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus, Congo virus.

S: 1. (last access: 4 September 2016). 2. (last access: 4 September 2016).

CR: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, hemorrhagic fever, tick.