S: WHO – http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs327/en/ (last access: 24 June 2016); https://www.sciencenews.org/article/chikungunya-move (last access: 24 June 2016).
N: 1. Chikungunya is a viral disease (genus Alphavirus) which is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes – including Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The name chikungunya originates from a verb in the Kimakonde language, meaning ‘to become contorted’. This refers to the ‘stooped’ appearance of those suffering with joint pain.
2. Symptoms appear between 4 and 7 days after the patient has been bitten by the infected mosquito and these include:
High fever (40°C/ 104°F)
Joint pain (lower back, ankle, knees, wrists or phalanges)
3. To diagnose chikungunya serological tests may be required. For example, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) can identify the presence of antibodies against the virus. This is most effective several weeks after illness onset, but can help to identify the disease in this time period.
A virological test, such as reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PRC), may be more useful in the first week of symptoms to detect the presence of the virus before antibodies have developed.
S: 1 & 2. WHO – http://www.who.int/denguecontrol/arbo-viral/other_arboviral_chikungunya/en/ (last access: 24 June 2016). 3. http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Chikungunya.aspx (last access: 24 June 2016).
CR: dengue, RNA virus, Stegomyia albopicta, Zika virus.