N: 1. Origin of amakacin: perhaps ami(noglycoside) + ka(namy)cin (D), the antibiotic from which amikacin is derived; (Streptomyces) kanamyc(eticus) a bacterium that produces kanamycin + -in.
- Chemical formula: C22H43N5O13.
- CAS number: 37517-28-5.
2. A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from kanamycin. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
3. Amikacin is a parenterally administered, broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic typically used for severe gram negative infections. Despite widespread use, amikacin has not been associated with instances of acute liver injury.
4. Amikacin (am” i kay’ sin) is a semisynthetic aminoglycoside with a particularly broad antimicrobial activity which is used for severe bacterial infections caused by sensitive agents including those resistant to gentamicin or tobramycin. Like other aminoglycosides, amikacin is thought to act by binding to bacterial ribosomes and inhibiting protein synthesis. Nevertheless, amikacin is considered bacteriocidal as well as bacteriostatic. Amikacin and other aminoglycosides are typically used in combination with a penicillin or cephalosporin for treatment of severe infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Serratia and other gram-negative bacteria resistant to less toxic antibiotics. Amikacin is most commonly used for septicemia, bacterial endocarditis, peritonitis, meningitis, pelvic inflammatory disease and pneumonia. Amikacin is also used in therapy of tuberculosis in combination with other antitubercular drugs. Amikacin was approved for use in the United States in 1981 and is available in several generic parenteral formulations. The typical adult dose is 15 mg/kg per day im or iv, usually in two or three divided doses over 5 to 10 days. The dose of amikacin must be modified based upon renal function and monitoring of drug levels is advisable. Common side effects include dizziness, headache, confusion, nausea and skin rash. Importantly, dose related adverse effects of amikacin include oto- and nephrotoxicity, which are shared by all aminoglycosides.
S: 1. DIC.COM – https://www.dictionary.com/browse/amikacin (last access: 28 december 2019); TERMIUM PLUS – https://bit.ly/364Wn2H (last access: 28 December 2019). 2. TERMIUM PLUS – https://bit.ly/364Wn2H (last access: 28 December 2019). 3 & 4. NCBI – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK548695/ (last access: 28 December 2019).