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traumatic brain injury

GC: n

S: MAYO - https://goo.gl/ZLG5aL(external link) (last access: 1 December 2017); Medplus - https://goo.gl/amsZMz(external link) (last access: 1 December 2017); TBI.com - https://goo.gl/9bMsq2(external link) (last access: 1 December 2017).

N: 1. - traumatic (adj): 1650. From French traumatique and directly from Late Latin traumaticus, from Greek τραυματικός traumatikós, "pertaining to a wound," from "trauma" (from Ancient Greek τραῦμα traûma, “wound, damage”).
- brain (n): Middle English from Old English bræġen, “brain”; from Proto-Germanic bragną “brain”; from Proto-Indo-European mreghmno “skull, brain”; from Proto-Indo-European ‘mregh-’, “marrow , sinciput” + ‘men-’, “mind, to think”. Cognate with Scots braine, brane “brain”; North Frisian brayen, brein “brain”; Saterland Frisian Brainge, “brain”; West Frisian brein, “brain”; Dutch brein, “brain”; Low German Brägen, Bregen, “brain” (whence German Bregen (“animal brain”)); Ancient Greek βρεχμός, brekhmós, “front part of the skull, top of the head”.
- injury (n): Late 14th Century. "Harm, damage, loss; a specific injury," from Anglo-French injurie "wrongful action"; from Latin iniuria "wrong, an injustice, insult, unlawful violence, assault, damage, harm", noun use of femenine of iniurius "wrongful, unjust, unlawful," from ‘in-’ "not, opposite of" + ius (genitive of iuris), "right, law".
Abbreviation of "traumatic brin injury": TBI
2. Injury to the brain caused by an external force such as a violent blow to the head, resulting in loss of consciousness, memory loss, dizziness, and confusion, and in some cases leading to long-term health effects, including motor and sensory problems, cognitive and behavioural dysfunction, and dementia.
3. Injury may include one or more of the following factors:
  • Damage to brain cells may be limited to the area directly below the point of impact on the skull.
  • A severe blow or jolt can cause multiple points of damage because the brain may move back and forth in the skull.
  • A severe rotational or spinning jolt can cause the tearing of cellular structures.
  • A blast, as from an explosive device, can cause widespread damage.
  • An object penetrating the skull can cause severe, irreparable damage to brain cells, blood vessels and protective tissues around the brain.
  • Bleeding in or around the brain, swelling, and blood clots can disrupt the oxygen supply to the brain and cause wider damage.
4. Types of traumatic brain injury:
  • Compression Fracture: A depressed skull fracture in which the broken bone exerts pressure on the brain.
  • Concussion: The common result of a blow to the head or sudden deceleration usually causing an altered mental state, either temporary or prolonged. Physiologic or anatomic disruption of connections between some nerve cells in the brain may occur. Often used by the public to refer to a brief loss of consciousness.
  • Contrecoup: Bruising or damage to brain tissue on the side opposite where the blow was struck.
  • Diffuse Brain Injury: Injury to cells in many areas of the brain rather than in one specific location.
  • Hematoma: Rupture of a blood vessel leading to the collection of blood in brain tissues or empty spaces.
  • Focal Injury: A focal Injury is confined to a specific area of the brain.
  • Penetrating Injury: A penetrating injury occurs when an object, such as a bullet or hay hook, breaks through the skull, enters the brain and rips the soft brain tissue in its path.
  • Skull Fracture: Skull fracture occurs by breaking of the bones surrounding the brain. A depressed skull fracture is one in which the broken bone exerts pressure on the brain.
5. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) defines the severity of a TBI within 48 hours of injury.
6. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of acquired disability and death in infants and children. Falls and motor vehicle collisions are common unintentional causes, whereas child abuse in infants and young children and assaults in adolescents are unfortunate inflicted causes of TBI. Management focuses on limiting progression of the primary brain injury and minimizing secondary brain injury. Research has revealed important age-dependent responses following paediatric traumatic brain injury.
7. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention the case of Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln got a traumatic brain injury when a mule kicked him at the back of his head. The brain injury caused some defects on his vision.
We can also find a film that is based on the gut wrenching and inspiring true story of TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) survivor, Brian Sweeney: Every 21 Seconds (2017) by Kuba Luczkiewicz.

S: 1. IATE (last access: 1 December 2017); OED - https://goo.gl/up4Emd;(external link) https://goo.gl/8AuEAz;(external link) https://goo.gl/EqfQXF;(external link) https://goo.gl/sZA3fs(external link) (last access: 1 December 2017); Wiktionary - https://goo.gl/rPaj7x;(external link) https://goo.gl/mBhfCB(external link) (last access: 1 December 2017). 2. MEDICALDICT - https://goo.gl/FGJACj(external link) (last access: 1 December 2017). 3. MAYO - https://goo.gl/p1vmqa(external link) (last access: 1 December 2017). 4. BRAINLINE - https://goo.gl/uTrU14(external link) (last access: 1 December 2017). 5. EME - https://goo.gl/QThQ3K(external link) (last access: 1 December 2017). 6. EME - https://goo.gl/8Fmwbh(external link) (last access: 1 December 2017). 7. HRF - https://goo.gl/qTteqX(external link) (last access: 1 December 2017); IMDb - http://www.imdb.com/title/tt4650624/(external link) (last access: 1 December 2017).

SYN: intracranial injury

S: IATE (last access: 1 December 2017)

CR: coma (EN), trauma (EN).


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