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streptomycin

GC: n

S: http://products.invitrogen.com/ivgn/product/15140122(external link) (last access: 22 April 2013); DORLAND.

N: 1. streptomycin (n.): antibiotic drug, 1944, from Modern Latin Streptomyces, genus name of the bacterium from which the antibiotic was obtained, from strepto- "twisted" + -mycin, element used in forming names of substances obtained from fungi, from Latinized form of Greek mykes "funtextgus" (see mucus). First isolated by U.S. microbiologist Selman Abraham Waksman (1888-1973) and others.
2. streptomycin, antibiotic synthesized by the soil organism Streptomyces griseus. Streptomycin was discovered by American biochemists Selman Waksman, Albert Schatz, and Elizabeth Bugie in 1943. The drug acts by interfering with the ability of a microorganism to synthesize certain vital proteins.
3. It was the first antimicrobial agent developed after penicillin and the first antibiotic effective in treating tuberculosis. Because it was effective against a wide variety of diseases, streptomycin was used often, with the result that many initially sensitive microorganisms, including the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, became resistant to the antibiotic.
4. Streptomycin is a broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic typically used for treatment of active tuberculosis, always in combination with other antituberculosis agents. Streptomycin is usually used in combination with agents that are known to be hepatotoxic and the role of streptomycin in liver injury has been difficult to assess, but most information suggests that streptomycin is not hepatotoxic.
5. Cultural Interrelation: Mercado Prohibido (directed by Javier Setó in 1952) shows how penicillin, streptomycin and chloramphenicol were smuggled into Francoist Spain. Other movies such as Kiss the Blood Off My Hands (directed by Norman Foster in 1948) also covers these aspects.

S: 1. OED - http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=streptomycin&searchmode=none(external link) (last access: 5 September 2014). 2 & 3. EncBrit. 4. http://livertox.nih.gov/Streptomycin.htm(external link) (last access: 2 September 2014). 5. http://www.seq.es/seq/0214-3429/19/4/je_garcia_sanchez.pdf(external link) (last access: 7 May 2016).

SYN:
S:

CR: bacterium, tuberculosis (EN).


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