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diabetes (EN)

GC: n

S: CDC - http://www.cdc.gov/media/presskits/aahd/diabetes.pdf(external link) (last access 22 November 2013); OMS - http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/(external link) (last access: 14 June 2015); DORLAND.

N: 1. 1560s, from medical Latin diabetes, from late Greek diabetes "excessive discharge of urine" (so named by Aretaeus the Cappadocian, physician of Alexandria, 2c.), literally "a passer-through, siphon," from diabainein "to pass through," from dia- "through" (see dia-) + bainein "to go" (see come).
An old common native name for it was pissing evil. In classical Greek, diabainein meant "to stand or walk with the legs apart," and diabetes meant "a drafting compass," from the position of the legs.
diabetic (adj.): 1799; see diabetes + -ic. From 1840 as a noun.
2. A general term referring to disorders characterized by excessive urine excretion (polyuria), as in diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. When used alone, the term refers to diabetes mellitus.
3. diabetes mellitus, disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by impaired ability of the body to produce or respond to insulin and thereby maintain proper levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, though these outcomes are not due to the immediate effects of the disorder. They are instead related to the diseases that develop as a result of chronic diabetes mellitus. These include diseases of large blood vessels (macrovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease) and small blood vessels (microvascular disease, including retinal and renal vascular disease), as well as diseases of the nerves.
4. diabetes insipidus, pathological endocrine condition characterized by excessive thirst and excessive production of very dilute urine. The disorder is caused by a lack of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) or a blocking of its action. This hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, regulates the kidney’s conservation of water and production of urine through its ability to stimulate reabsorption of water by the kidneys. Diabetes insipidus is so named because the large volume of urine that is excreted is tasteless, or “insipid,” rather than sweet, as is the case in diabetes mellitus, in which the urine may contain large quantities of glucose.
5. Diabetes is the condition in which the body does not properly process food for use as energy. Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy. The pancreas, an organ that lies near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of our bodies. When you have diabetes, your body either doesn't make enough insulin or can't use its own insulin as well as it should. This causes sugars to build up in your blood. This is why many people refer to diabetes as “sugar.”
6. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention the Nobel Lecture Diabetes and Insulin.
in the contexto of The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923 awarding to Frederick G. Banting and John Macleod.

S: 1.OED - http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=diabetes&searchmode=none(external link) (last access: 3 September 2014). 2. TERMIUM PLUS (last access: 3 September 2014). 3 & 4. EncBrit (last access: 3 September 2014). 5. CDC - http://www.cdc.gov/media/presskits/aahd/diabetes.pdf(external link) (last access 22 November 2013). 6. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1923/banting-lecture.html(external link) (last access: 22 April 2016).

SYN:
S:

CR: glucacon (EN), hydrops, hyperglycemia.

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