F: WAOJ – http://waojournal.biomedcentral.com/ (last access: 25 October 2016); PMC – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500036/ (last access: 29 October 2016).
N: 1. New Latin, from ana- + prophylaxis. First Known Use: 1907.
2. The first documented case of presumed anaphylaxis occurred in 2641 BC when Menes, an Egyptian pharaoh, died mysteriously following a wasp or hornet sting.
Later, Charles Richet was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913 for his work on anaphylaxis. Richet went on to suggest that the allergen must result in the production of a substance, which then sensitized the dogs to react in such a way upon re exposure. This substance turned out to be IgE.
3. Is an acute, potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction, involving the release of mediators from mast cells, basophils and recruited inflammatory cells. Anaphylaxis is defined by a number of signs and symptoms, alone or in combination, which occur within minutes, or up to a few hours, after exposure to a provoking agent. It can be mild, moderate to severe, or severe. Most cases are mild but any anaphylaxis has the potential to become life-threatening.
4. Epinephrine is the drug of choice to treat anaphylaxis. Individuals at high risk for anaphylaxis should be issued epinephrine syringes for self-administration and instructed in their use. Intramuscular injection is recommended since it results in prompt elevation of plasma concentrations and has prompt physiological effects. Subcutaneous injection results in delayed epinephrine absorption. Patients must be alerted to the clinical signs of impending anaphylaxis and the need to carry epinephrine syringes at all times and to use it at the earliest onset of symptoms.
5. Cultural interrelation: King Richard III of England, who was allergic to strawberries, secretly ate a few before meetings with Hastings one day. After falling ill quickly and dramatically, he publicly accused Hastings of putting a curse on him. The hapless Hastings was then arrested on charges of treason and dispatched in the first recorded execution at the Tower of London. Richard was coronated a week later.
Millennia before this famous example of assault by anaphylaxis, the man considered by most historians to be Egypt’s very first pharaoh, Menes (c. 3100-3000 BCE), allegedly met his mummifier after succumbing to a wasp’s sting.
F: 1. MW – http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/anaphylaxis (last access: 29 October 2016). 2. MN – http://www.medicinenet.com/anaphylaxis/page2.htm (last access: 25.10.16). 3 & 4 WAOJ – http://waojournal.biomedcentral.com/ (last access: 29 October 2016). 5. http://www.doctorsreview.com/history/mar06-history/ (last access: 25 October 2016)